Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.



Deduplication (dedup, or deduping) - the act of presenting identical record citations a a single record in Primo VE search results

FRBRization, or FRBR (from Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records) - the act of grouping record citations referencing similar or the same works, for more streamlined presentation in search results.

Separating Alma from CDI content when analyzing issues

To deal effectively with the topics of Dedup and FRBR in Alma, be aware that:

1. Dedup and FRBR only apply to records in Alma

2. CDI citation merging is accomplished through the CDI match-and-merge process

You can use the "library catalog" and "articles" scopes in Primo VE to separate Alma and CDI citations, so that you can analyze issues more effectively (Note that Primo VE scope names and configurations vary among institutions.)

Dedup and FRBR

To evaluate why two Alma records are or are not deduping or FRBRizing as you expect, you can use the Dedup and FRBR Analysis Tool for Primo VE - Ex Libris Knowledge Center ( documentation).

To re-evaluate a record in Alma to fix a FRBRization issue, you can recalculate dedup and FRBR groups for a record.

If you want to customize dedup and FRBR configurations, to change the way records are deduped and FRBRized, that can now be accomplished with the newly released Dedup/FRBR Complete Key Combination functionality. However, that option should be approached with caution, as modifying dedup / FRBR logic can have a broad impact on search results.

CDI Match-and-Merge

The CDI-Match-and-Merge process is fully automated, and not configurable by the customer.

If you feel you have identified errors in the matching and merging of citations in Primo VE search results, you should open a SalesForce case. In the case, include the Primo VE permalinks of the citations not behaving as you expect, as well as EZProxy credentials for your institution, so that ExLibris can fully analyze the issue.

To help with evaluation of a CDI citation in Primo VE, you can use the newly released CDI Analysis Tool. This tool can be used to determine which collection and portfolio / title activation in Alma is resulting in a CDI citation being included in Primo VE search results.

Links of interest

Dedup and FRBR Analysis Tool for Primo VE - Ex Libris Knowledge Center ( documentation)

How to Test Dedup and FRBR (3 min video)

Become an Expert on Dedup and FRBR in Primo VE (Youtube, 55 min)

Match and Merge in the CDI (Informational only, not configurable by customer)

Duplicate Detection Vector - Ex Libris Knowledge Center (

Primo VE Dedup and FRBR | CARLI (

Understanding the Dedup and FRBR Processes (Primo VE) - Ex Libris Knowledge Center (

CDI Activation Analysis (

Match and Merge in CDI - Ex Libris Knowledge Center (